Can You Answer These Aircraft Maintenance Questions?

By: Ryan Choate
Estimated Completion Time
6 min
Which fuel/air mixture will result in the highest engine temperature?
A mixture that is too lean
Too lean of a mixture will possibly burn as the gases are forced out past the exhaust valve. This will cause serious overheating of the exhaust valve, and that's a very bad thing.
A mixture that is too rich
A perfectly leaned mixture
The mixture doesn't matter.

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What is one purpose of wing flaps?
To decrease the wing area
To relieve the pilot of putting too much pressure on the controls
To allow steeper approaches without increasing airspeed
The purpose of the flaps is to generate more lift at a slower airspeed. They also produce more drag, which allows the pilot to fly a steeper descent angle to the runway - without increasing his or her airspeed.
To look cool

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Flying a plane can be taxing. Thank goodness for trim. But, what are trim systems for?
They are used during approach and landing to increase wing lift.
They relieve the pilot of the need to maintain constant back pressure on the flight controls.
Once the airplane is in a stable configuration, the pilot can set the trim to hold the control pressures as they are. This allows the pilot to take his or her hands off the controls, or at least release pressure.
They move in the opposite direction from one another to control roll.
They add to the aesthetic of the plane.

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Landing an airplane takes skill. How does a pilot minimize the side loads placed on the landing gear during touchdown?
Keep the downwind wing lowered
Keep the direction of motion of the aircraft parallel to the runway
Keep the longitudinal axis of the aircraft parallel to the direction of its motion
If there is a difference between the direction of travel of the airplane as a whole and the direction that the wheels are pointed, the tires and wheels and landing gear struts are pulled sideways. If the difference is extreme, the tires can pull away from the rims. Better keep the longitudinal axis of the aircraft parallel to the direction of travel!
Keep the upwind wing lowered

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On aircraft equipped with fuel pumps, when is the auxiliary electric driven pump used?
In case the engine-driven pump fails
There is a lot of redundancy build into airplanes. This is especially for good reason in case of a fuel-pump failure. No fuel means no engine power, which means forced emergency landing. The auxiliary pump prevents this from happening.
When more power is needed
When climbing
When descending

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An electrical system failure (battery and alternator) occurs during flight. What should the pilot expect in this situation?
Avionics equipment failure
If your alternator fails, your battery will take over - for a few minutes. Then you'll be completely without electrical power. If you're flying in clear, blue skies, there isn't too much to worry about. Your engine runs just fine without an alternator, because it gets its spark from your magnetos. And since you can see, you can visually navigate your way to the ground. If you are flying through clouds, that's a different story. You'll need to get yourself out of them as soon as possible.
Navigation equipment failure
Engine failure
Redundant systems will keep everything functioning

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Piston aircraft have dual ignition systems. What is one reason for this?
Improved engine performance
Dual ignition provides two advantages. One is redundancy in the event of in-flight failure of one of the ignition systems. But the other reason is that it allows for more efficient burning of the fuel-air mixture within the combustion chamber.
There isn't a reason.
Ignition systems are extremely unreliable.
In case the key breaks

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What does the indication on an ammeter show?
The rate of charge on the battery
The main job of the ammeter is to monitor the electrical system of the aircraft. It shows if the alternator is producing enough electricity and whether or not the battery is actually receiving that electricity. If the needle drops, then there is likely a problem with the alternator (or generator if the airplane doesn't have an alternator).
The amount of charge left on the battery
The amount of electricity that is currently being used
The number of electrical items being used

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A skilled mechanic needs to be able to recognize abnormal processes. What is the uncontrolled firing of the fuel/air charge in advance of normal spark ignition known as?
Pre-ignition
Pre-ignition is when the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder ignites before the spark plug fires. The most common cause of pre-ignition is lead deposits within the cylinder or on the spark plugs.
Detonation
Back Firing
Killing the Engine

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A pilot and crew must always be prepared. What frequency does the emergency locator transmitter (ELT) transmit on?
121.5 and 243.0 MHz
The ELT is required to be installed on all U.S. registered aircraft. They may be manually activated to transmit a distress signal on either 121.5 or 243.0 or it can be triggered upon impact.
120.5 and 240.0 MHz
118.5 and 236.5 MHz
110.5 and 350.0 MHz

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If a pilot lands at your airport, which does not have the proper aviation gas, what should you suggest that he or she substitute?
The next higher octane aviation gas
Just in case the pilot is unsure what kind of fuel he or she is carrying, all avgas is color-coded. 100LL is blue, 130 is green, and 82 is purple. You can use a higher octane, but not a lower one.
The next lower octane aviation gas
Jet fuel
Diesel

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A good mechanic can evaluate unusual gauge readings. What might cause an abnormally high engine oil temperature indication?
The oil level could be too low.
If a pilot experiences an abnormally high oil temperature indication, it could be a sign that there isn't enough oil to help absorb the excess heat. It is also important to make sure that the temperature sensor is working.
There's too much oil.
Not enough gas
Airspeed is too slow.

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It's important to keep the engine cool. What are air cooled engines especially dependent on?
Circulation of oil
Air-cooled engines obviously rely on air flowing over them to keep them cool. This is the number one cooling mechanism. However, circulating oil is also extremely important in order to reduce friction and prevent excessive heat from building up in the first place.
Water
Fan
Clouds

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What is the fuel/air ratio?
The weight of fuel and the weight of air entering the cylinder
The fuel/air ratio is determined by the weight of fuel to the weight of air entering the cylinder. The cylinder is where the ignition takes place, which is where the ratio is the most important. This ratio is measured in weight because the volume changes too rapidly.
The volume of fuel and the volume of air entering the cylinder
The fuel molecules to air molecules in the fuel tanks
The volume of fuel to the volume of air in the fuel tanks

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Carburetor heat can solve a lot of problems. However, what is one downside?
It decreases engine performance.
Carburetor heat serves an important function. It raises the temperature in the venturi section in order to prevent or remove any ice buildup that could block airflow into the engine. However, in doing so, it also decreases the density of the air (hot air is less dense) which changes the air/fuel ratio, and therefore decreases engine performance.
It makes it too hot in the cabin.
Causes decreased fuel flow
It increases engine RPM.

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If cylinder head temperature and engine oil temperature gauges exceed their normal operating ranges, what could the culprit be?
Using the incorrect fuel
Mis-fueling can result in complete engine failure. Luckily, avgas is color-coded in order to help prevent mis-fueling in the first place. However, it's important that the pilot and mechanic are vigilant when fueling.
Incorrect throttle setting
The engine is too hot.
Airspeed is too slow.

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What are the positive aspects of human factor issues referred to as?
Magnificent Seven
The "Magnificent Seven" is a list of human factors issues. These seven issues are: 1. We work to accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative. 2. Safety is not a game because the price of losing is too high. 3. Just for today - zero error. 4. We all do our part to prevent Murphy from hitting the jackpot. 5. Our signature is our word and more precious than gold. 6. We are all part of the team. 7. We always work with a safety net.
Dirty Dozen
Hardy Four
MEDA

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Why is it good practice to fill the fuel tanks after the last flight of the day?
To prevent condensation
Water in the fuel tank can seriously degrade the engine’s performance, even preventing the engine from starting or killing the engine after it's started. Filling the fuel tanks prevents condensation.
To keep the tanks lubricated
To make it easy to take off the next day
In case someone accidentally flies the plane

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Which is NOT a result of excessively high engine temperatures?
Loss of power
Excessive oil consumption
Internal engine damage
Faster flight
High engine temperatures are a bad sign. It can cause loss of power (ready for an emergency landing?). It can also cause the aircraft to consume too much oil, leading to low oil pressure and possible engine seizing. And both of those things can cause permanent engine damage.

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What is an advantage of a constant-speed propeller?
It allows for the most efficient performance.
There are actually several benefits of a constant-speed propeller. One is optimized performance during each phase of flight. You aren't forced to choose between a climb propeller and a cruise propeller. It also allows for improved fuel efficiency and reduces the strain on the engine.
It creates more strain, which can be a good thing.
It allows for the use of cheaper fuel.
It allows the plane to travel further.

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When may an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) be tested?
During the first 5 minutes after the hour
An ELT (Emergency Locator Beacon) is an emergency transmitter that is carried onboard the airplane. In the event of an aircraft accident, the ELT transmits a signal on 121.5. It's important to occasionally test the ELT, which can be done during the first 5 minutes of every hour.
Any time
Every 30 minutes
During the midnight hour

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Carburetor icing can choke an engine. What condition allows for carburetor icing?
Temperature between 20°F and 70°F and high humidity
Carburetor icing can occur at temperatures as high as 70 degrees Fahrenheit. As air moves through the venturi, it will cool the air to icing temperatures. This means that the most important factor in determining the possibility of carburetor icing is the humidity in the air. If there is no water, then there can be no icing - no matter how cold it is outside.
Below freezing temperatures
Low humidity
Low humidity coupled with below-freezing temperatures

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What does applying carburetor heat do to the fuel/air mixture?
Enriches it
Carburetor heat raises the temperature of the air. As the air heats up, it becomes less dense. Once the air is less dense, the ratio of fuel to air increases.
Leans it
Decreases fuel flow
Has no effect

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What can be done to aid an overheating engine?
Enrich the mixture
Air-cooled engines rely most heavily on air flowing over the engine in order to cool it off. Circulating oil also helps keep the engine cool. The third way to cool the engine is to enrichen the mixture. The fuel is actually cooler than the engine, so bringing cooler fuel can actually help remove the heat from the engine.
Climb higher
Increase engine power
Land

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Why should a pilot adjust the fuel/air mixture at altitude?
To compensate for decreased air density
As the plane climbs, the air becomes less dense (there are fewer air molecules flowing into the engine). Because there is less air, the pilot must lessen the amount of fuel allowed to flow in order to keep the fuel/air ratio constant.
They shouldn't.
To decrease engine RPM
Because the air is made of different molecules

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If a pilot suspects that an engine is detonating on climb-out, what would you suggest he or she do?
Lean the mixture
Lower the nose slightly to increase airspeed
The pilot needs to decrease the heat of the engine. One way to do so is to get more air flowing over the engine (it's air-cooled). The best way to do so is to lower the nose and increase airspeed. More air equals cooler engine.
Apply carburetor heat
Lower the flaps

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Propellers can be fixed-pitch or constant-speed. What is an advantage of a constant-speed propeller?
The pilot can choose the blade angle for the most efficient performance.
A constant-speed propeller permits the pilot to select the best blade angle, so that the flight is as efficient as possible. A low blade angle is good for takeoffs, while a higher angle is good for cruise.
The pilot can maintain a desired cruising speed.
It provides smoother operation.
The pilot doesn't have to maintain back pressure.

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In what flight condition is torque greatest in a single-engine plane?
Low airspeed, high power, high angle of attack
The effect of torque increases in direct proportion to engine power, airspeed and airplane attitude. Torque is reduced in higher airspeeds because of the increased stability of more airflow over the wings. Higher power places more torque due to the propeller.
Low airspeed, low power, low angle of attack
High airspeed, high power, high angle of attack
High airspeed, low power, low angle of attack

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When does P-factor cause the airplane to yaw to the left?
At low angles of attack
At high angles of attack
P-factor is a result of asymmetric propeller-loading. It is caused because the downward-moving blade on the right produces more thrust than the upward-moving propeller on the left. This effect is amplified when the airplane is at a high angle of attack.
At high airspeeds
At low airspeeds

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Which instrument will become inoperative if the pitot tube becomes clogged?
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
GPS
Airspeed Indicator
The pitot tube provides input for the airspeed indicator only. The airspeed indicator also uses the static port. The altimeter and vertical speed indicator only rely on the static port. The GPS relies on neither.

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Which instrument(s) will become inoperative if the static vents become clogged?
Airspeed Indicator only
Altimeter only
Vertical Speed Indicator only
The airspeed indicator, altimeter, and vertical speed indicator
All three instruments rely on the static port. The airspeed indicator also relies on the pitot tube for accurate readings.

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How is a quality system assured?
By an independent organization
By an dependent organization
By an internal reporting and auditing system
A quality system includes procedures for planning, conducting and documenting internal audits to ensure compliance. The procedures must include reporting results of internal audits to those responsible for implementing corrective or preventive action.
By an outsider

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Many areas of aviation have shifted their focus from eliminating error to:
Preventing and managing error
The Maintenance Error Decision Aid (MEDA) investigates errors, tries to understand root causes and then implements strategies to prevent and manage accidents. Research shows that most of the factors that contribute to an error can be managed.
Identifying and mitigating error
Reducing and containing error
Ignoring it

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When we think of aviation safety in a contemporary way, where does human error fall?
The starting point
Investigators use the SHEL model. It stands for "software, hardware, environment and liveware." In all instances, the human factor is the starting point. Basically, if something goes wrong, it's almost always our fault!
The intervention point
The ending point
Never a factor

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What is the goal of the SHEL model?
Determining where and why a problem exists
The SHEL model (software/procedures, hardware/machines, environment/ambient, liveware/personnel) is used to determine where and why a problem exists. After running through the SHEL model, then maintenance can go about solving the problem.
Determining how to prevent the problem
Determining how many factors contribute to the problem
Hiding the problem

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