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Phospholipids, protein, and cholesterol are all found in animal cells. Cellulose, however, is only found in plant cells.
A purine pairs with a pyrimidines. The purine guanine is the complement of the pyrimidine cytosine; and the purine adenine is the complement of the pyrimidine thymine in DNA. Uracil pairs only with adenine in RNA.
Most cells maintain a membrane potential in which the internal environment is negatively charged compared to the environment. Depolarization allows for the transmission of electrical impulses and is a form of communication within and between cells.
A dipole molecule is electrically neutral and has a positive and a negative charge which helps many substances dissolve and therefore promotes interactions among them.
Energy can be transformed, but not created or destroyed.
Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic and can therefore easily cross the cell membrane by diffusion (passive transport).
pH is a logarithmic function, so a change in one unit (for example, from 7 to 6) indicates a 10-fold change in the hydrogen ion concentration. Therefore, decreasing from 7 to 3 indicates a 10,000-fold increase in hydrogen ions.
The stroma is the inner space of the chloroplasts.
Photorespiration is an enzymatic reaction that uses oxygen, produces carbon dioxide, does not generate ATP, and is not coupled to any electron transfer system.
Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes for degrading damaged organelles.
Contractile vacuoles help balance the ion and molecule concentrations by pumping extra water out of the cell.
Fermentation is a process that occurs in yeast, bacteria, and muscle cells that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol.
The four electrons available in carbon enables chemical bonding and interactions with many other elements.
Electrons are shared and/or exchanged to form chemical bonds.
The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is, and ranges from 0 to 14, where 7 is neutral, above 7 is basic, and below 7 is acidic.
Many hydrophobic sidechains form the “hydrophobic core” of the protein, driven by repulsive forces from the aqueous environment.
Electrons clouds are based purely on mathematical probability of an electron being in a particular location, which forms an image of an orbit.
Parthenogenesis can be a normal process in some invertebrates and lower plants.
Mature red blood cells have an average life span of 120 days, and do not undergo mitosis because they do not have a nucleus, whereas other cells types including skin and hair cells can divide through mitosis.
If an organism has two different alleles of a gene, it is heterozygous. If it had two of the same allele, it would be homozygous.
When nights get longer, chlorophyll levels decrease, and this allows us to see the other pigments (red, orange, yellow) that were hidden by the green.
The electron transport chain builds up a surplus of hydrogen ions that flow as free energy to help generate ATP.
The process of glycolysis is one step in the process of cellular respiration that allows the simple sugar glucose (coming from your food), to be broken down into energy that you can use.
RNA nucleotide pairs do not contain the Thymine (T) nitrogenous base - it is replaced with Uracil (U).
Five major types of biomes are: aquatic, desert, forest, grassland, and tundra.
The average annual rainfall in a desert is generally less than 7 inches.
Temperate zones generally have distinct seasons of warm and cold, and have deciduous trees that lose their leaves in autumn.
The breakdown of ATP produced during cellular respiration is: 2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport chain.
The trophic levels are groups in which organisms share the same function in the food chain and have the same nutritional relationship to primary sources of energy. The origin of the word "trophic" is from the Greek word that refers to food.
Omnivores are primary and secondary consumers because they can eat both plants and animals .
For example, a tapeworm (parasite) that lives in the intestines of a mammal (host) benefits from the nutrients intended for the mammal, causing harm to the mammal.
The most common carbon molecules used to produce glucose in the reverse process of glycolysis are: pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and the amino acids alanine and glutamine. The liver is the major site of gluconeogenesis,
Water and some nutrients are reabsorbed in the large intestine, and the the waste products are compacted to prepare for elimination from the body.
Research has shown that external and environmental factors can affect gene expression to cause changes that may or may not be heritable.
Fresh water, solar energy, and timber are all renewable resources since they can be used repeatedly because they are replaced naturally.