Canada may sit just to the north of the United States, but it has a rich history all its own. From Aboriginals and First Nations, to European explorers forging through the harsh environment, to modern cities and settlements, Canadian history is equal parts turmoil and triumph. Take our quiz to see how much you know about the people, places and moments that make up the history of Canada.
Like many other early Canadian explorers, John Hudson was seeking the Northwest Passage when he reached the Hudson Bay. Thanks to a mutiny, he was set adrift and likely died in or around the Bay in 1611.
The Ottawa Mint struck the country's first coin -- worth 50 cents -- in 1908.
John MacDonald was both the first and third prime minster to represent Canada, serving from 1867 to 1873 and again from 1878 to 1891.
British explorer John Cabot sailed to eastern Canada aboard the Matthew in 1497, making him the first European to claim land in Canada.
The name Canada comes from the Iroquoian word kanata, which means village.
The French were the first to establish European settlements in Canada, settling at Port-Royal, Nova Scotia in 1604.
In 1670, King Charles II granted a charter to Hudson's Bay Company, which specialized in selling North American furs to wealthy Europeans.
In the first Canadian census, the country had a European population of just 3,418 in 1660. By 1739, that number had grown to more than 42,000.
Early European settlers to Canada faced fierce resistance from the Indians. The 1701 Montreal Peace Treaty was signed by 38 nations, including the Iroquois and promised to stop the bloodshed between natives and settlers.
The Halifax Gazette became Canada's first newspaper in 1752. The city was founded just three years prior and had a population of only 4,000 residents at the time.
Founded in 1750, Fort Rouille was a hot spot for fur trading and would one day become the city of Toronto.
The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years' War and helped bring peace between French and English settlements in the New World.
France forfeited its mainland territories in Canada after the Seven Years' War, clearing the path for British rule in the early days of Canadian history.
The Constitutional Act of 1791 split Canada into an Upper and Lower area. It also established government selected by the people, paving the way for modern democracy.
In 1834, York was renamed as Toronto, and the city was officially incorporated.
Released in April 1851, Canada's beaver stamp was the first known postage stamp in history to feature a picture of an animal, rather than a person.
Queen Victoria selected Ottawa to serve as the capital of the Province of Canada in 1857. Before Ottawa, both Montreal and Toronto had a turn in the role of capital city.
Canada went from Province to Dominion in 1867. At the time, Canada had just four provinces, including Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
Canada automatically became embroiled in World War I when Great Britain entered the conflict. At the start of the war, Canada had an Army of just 3,110 men.
Canadian women won the right to vote in all federal elections in 1918 -- two years before women's suffrage took effect in the U.S.
The famous Canadian Mounties were formed in 1920 when the North-West Mounted Police and the Dominion Force merged.
Canadian independence was cemented with the 1926 Balfour Report, which declared Canada a constitutional equal to England.
Unlike World War I, when Canada was forced into the war alongside Great Britain, Canada chose to declare war on Nazi Germany in 1939.
While Canada maintained an Army of just 4,500 soldiers at the start of World War II, more than 42,000 Canadians eventually died in the conflict.
Though red and white have served as the country's official colors since the 1920s, the red and white maple leaf flag wasn't chosen to represent the nation until 1965.
The English lyrics to the song were penned in 1908 by Robert Stanley Weir, but the music was composed back in 1880.
Thanks to the Official Languages Act of 1969, both English and French are considered official Canadian languages and are given equal status in the eyes of the law.
The country's Constitution, which outlines the laws of Canada and guarantees certain rights, went into effect in April 1982.
Nunavut -- Iroquois for "our land" -- became Canada's third official territory in 1999. It's capital is Iqaluit, and it sits at the northern edge of the country close to the Arctic Circle.
Canada has around 31 million residents as of the 2006 Census. That's about one-tenth of the U.S. population.