Gentrification Quiz

By: Dave Roos

Gentrification Quiz
Image: Lorraine Boogich/E+/Getty Images

About This Quiz

There goes the neighborhood. When wealthy interlopers start building luxury condos and juice bars in formerly gritty and eclectic neighborhoods, tensions can get high. Test your knowledge of the gentrification process with this quiz.
What is the popular term for the post-WWII migration of middle-class white families out of urban areas and into the suburbs?
The Big Move
White Flight
The shift of capital investment out of urban areas characterized by "white flight" led to a prolonged period of "disinvestment" in many urban neighborhoods.
The Suburban Shift

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In the early 1980s, the rent for a small bike shop in Park Slope, Brooklyn was $700 a month. What was the market value of the same storefront in 1998?
$2,000 a month
$5,000 a month
From $700 to $5,000 per month?! Small mom-and-pop businesses don't generate enough revenue to survive such dramatic rent increases.
$10,000 a month

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What is the generally accepted definition of gentrification?
When wealthier people move into an urban neighborhood, rents and prices increase, lower income residents are displaced and the character of the neighborhood is changed.
While there is no formal definition of gentrification, the displacement pattern gets to the heart of the process.
When formerly neglected areas are rehabilitated and affordable housing is built for lower income residents.
When people from the suburbs move to wealthier "exurbs."

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When urban geographer Ruth Glass coined the term gentrification in the 1960s, did she intend for it to have a positive or negative connotation?
Positive
Negative
Glass, a Marxist, wasn't a fan of the concept; she was most concerned about the fate of the lower income residents when wealthier homeowners moved into the neighborhood.
Both

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The root of gentrification is the word "gentry," which means which of the following?
Country folk
White people
The ruling class or aristocracy
Ruth Glass, who coined the term gentrification, was British and would've understood "gentry" to mean the ruling class.

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What is the typical demographic shift that occurs during the gentrification process?
Higher median income, more racial minorities, more families
Lower median income, fewer racial minorities, more families
Higher median income, fewer racial minorities, fewer families
Apartments and homes previously occupied by larger families are typically bought by younger professional couples and singles.

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Which of the following does NOT represent the typical shift in real estate and land use during gentrification?
Conversion of industrial buildings into loft apartments
Conversion of single family homes into multi-unit apartments
During gentrification, smaller apartments are merged to create larger, luxury units.
Conversion of multi-unit brownstones into single family homes

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What is the popular term for predominately white, middle-class, educated city dwellers who are the first to move into marginal urban neighborhoods?
City slickers
Dumpster divers
Urban pioneers
Urban pioneers are often artists or students who are attracted to the cheap rents and gritty charm of the neighborhood.

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Which of the following is NOT a sign that a long-neglected urban neighborhood has been populated by urban pioneers?
Artist lofts being built in formerly industrial buildings
The arrival of "chain" stores like Walgreens or Starbucks
Chain stores wouldn't arrive until the very last stages of gentrification.
Opening of several bohemian cafes, hipster bars and underground nightclubs

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What is one of the main factors that encourages wealthier families to buy or rent in neighborhoods "reclaimed" by urban pioneers?
Diversification of investments
Rising real estate prices in more established urban neighborhoods and suburbs.
When home prices and apartment rentals become too high in the more established neighborhoods, people begin looking for the next hot district.
Proximity to better restaurants

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True or False: It is illegal for the new owner or an apartment building to evict month-to-month renters without cause.
True
False
In most states, a new or existing landlord can evict a month-to-month tenant with 30 or 60 days notice.

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Can a new landlord raise the rent on tenants with a fixed-term lease?
Yes
No
No, the landlord must wait until the lease or rental agreement expires.

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In a city with rent control ordinances, is it illegal for a landlord to raise the rent when the original tenant moves out?
Yes
No
Depends on the rent control laws of that particular city
It depends on a particular city's rent control laws. Some cities include a "vacancy decontrol" statute in their rent control laws, meaning that only the original tenant qualifies for a fixed rent. If that tenant moves or is evicted for just cause, the landlord can raise the rent for new tenants.

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In a city without rent control ordinances, is there a limit to how much a landlord can raise the rent once a lease expires?
Yes
No
In most cities without rent control laws, the landlord is free to increase his or her rents to the fair market value of the property.

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According to new gentrification research based on census data, which of the following statements is most true?
Lower-income residents move out of gentrifying neighborhoods at a faster rate than non-gentrifying neighborhoods
Lower-income residents move out of gentriying neigborhoods at a slower rate than non-gentrifying neighborhoods
Lower-income residents move out of gentrifying neighborhoods at the same rate as non-gentrifying neighborhoods
This new data seems to disprove the theory that lower-income residents are actively displaced from gentrifying neighboorhoods.

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What is the main difference between the "displacement" of lower-income residents and the process of "succession?"
Displacement is illegal, but succession is technically legal.
Displacement implies that lower-income residents are actively removed from neighborhoods, often by force.
With succession, lower-income residents aren't forced out by higher rents; they simply move out of the neighborhood at a normal rate and are replaced by higher-income residents
Census research seems to indicate that succession, rather than displacement, is the more accurate model of the gentrification process in most cities.

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Which of the following are considered some of the positive effects of gentrification?
Increased economic activity, lower vacancy rates, lower crime
Increased economic activity, lower vacancy rates and lower crime are three of the more positive effects of gentrification. While higher prices are a boon to landlords and some business owners, they tend to marginalize and exclude lower-income residents.
Higher prices, greater diversity, better shopping
Cleaner streets, affordable housing, more jobs

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According to census data, what is the demographic that is most likely to move into a gentrifying neighborhood?
High-school educated people less than 30 years old
College-educated white people more than 40 years old
This data matches the general perception of gentrification being driven by young, white professionals.
College-educated people more than 40 years old

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More surprising to researchers, what is another demographic with a high probability of moving into gentrifying neighborhoods?
40-to-60-year-old Hispanics without a high-school diploma
The demographic of 40-to-60-year-old Hispanics without high-school diplomas seems to depart from the conventional understanding of the gentrification process.
College-educated black residents more than 40
High-school educated white families with 3 or more children

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According to the latest research, which demographic contributes the greatest percentage of total income gain in a gentrifying neighborhood?
Whites with a college degree
Hispanic householders with a high-school degree
Black residents with a high-school degree
High-school educated black residents who owned their own home contributed 33 percent of the total income gain compared to 20 percent for college-educated whites.

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You Got:
/20
Lorraine Boogich/E+/Getty Images
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