How Much Do You Know About the Spanish Conquest of the Americas?
By: John Miller
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About This Quiz
Whether you call it colonization or conquest, the Spanish definitely set out to make the Americas their own -- and that's exactly what they did. How much do you know about the Spanish takeover of the Americas?
The Spanish conquests of the Americas started in which century?
Many historians see 1492 as the beginning of the conquests. Then, for hundreds of years, the colonization continued in earnest.
Which famous adventurer set the stage for the beginning of the conquests?
In 1492, Christopher Columbus (an Italian explorer working for Spain) set off to the New World. By the end of his life, he'd made four voyages to the Americas, jumpstarting European colonization.
What was one of Columbus' primary goals of traveling in the direction of the Americas?
He wanted to find New York City.
He dreamed of a city made of pure silver.
He was searching for a route to the Orient.
Columbus was dispatched to find a western route to the Orient, one that would make trading easier and increase the wealth of European powers.
Where did Christopher Columbus manage to establish a permanent colony?
Columbus reached locations in the Carribean managed to establish permanent colonies. Those colonies, in turn, provided a critical link back to homelands in Europe.
The Spanish explorers who conquered the Americas were often called _____.
The Spanish were often called conquistadors, the conquerors. The feats of the conquistadors completely altered the history of the Americas.
Columbus discovered the Caribbean island called Hispaniola, and many settlers followed his path to this island. What happened to most of them?
The early settlers of Hispaniola were often looking to get rich and then go home. Most of them simply perished from deadly tropical diseases long before realizing their dreams of wealth and glory.
They were eaten by giant snakes.
The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas divvied up the Americas between the Spanish and the _____.
Spain and Portugal had powerful navies that allowed them to explore the world, and the Treaty of Tordesillas helped them divide the goodies of the New World without conflict. Other European powers mostly ignored the treaty.
What's one side effect of the arrival of Spanish explorers in the Americas?
They introduced clothing to the Americas.
They introduced new diseases.
Spanish explorers dragged along all manner of disease to the Americas. From smallpox to measles, these infections wound up killing countless natives.
They exposed natives to digital technologies.
What was one reason that the Spanish wanted to explore the Americas?
The Spanish were heavy into Catholicism, and they set out to spread their religion throughout the Americas. They sometimes found the locals less than receptive to their religious overtures.
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar conquered which area?
Velazquez conquered Cuba and ruled it on behalf of Spain. He also played a role in the exploration of other areas of the Americas.
Hernan Cortes is famous for which acts in mainland Mexico?
He was the first European to eat at Taco Bell.
He conquered the Aztec Empire.
Cortes assembled a group of around 600 men and set off for what is now Mexico. Then, the men cleverly subverted the empire and managed to conquer a huge civilization without much of an army.
Velazquez was at first supportive of Cortes and his Mexican escapades, but then he decided that Cortez should give up on the idea. What did Cortez do?
He left for Mexico against Velazquez's orders.
Cortez was raring to go to Mexico to set about on an exploration. When Velazquez forbade him from going, he simply ignored the order, packed up his men and left.
He conquered England instead.
How did Cortez conquer the huge Aztec Empire without a large army?
He bought them off with gold.
He used political manipulation.
Cortez cleverly played various native factions against one another. He also created alliances with armed natives who were willing to fight alongside the Spanish.
Francisco Pizarro conquered the area that is modern-day _____.
Pizarro wanted to make his fortune, so he set off for what is now Peru. Through clever acts of brutality, he managed to conquer the area.
Pizarro was drawn to Peru by dreams of what?
Pizarro, like many conquerors, was drawn to Peru by dreams of massive wealth. He wanted to take Peru's riches and make them his own.
Pizzaro managed to capture Atahualpa, an emperor of the _____ empire.
At the 1532 Battle of Cajamarca, Pizarro captured Incan emperor Atahualpa. He decided to hold the emperor for ransom in hopes of getting rich quickly.
After Pizzaro demanded ransom for Atahualpa, what happened?
The emperor gave him the location of the Ark of Covenant.
The emperor gave him a lot of gold.
Atahualpa capitulated and gave Pizarro heaps of gold for his release. But Pizzaro decided not to release the emperor -- instead, he charged him with various crimes … and then executed him.
The Incans abandoned their leader.
Velázquez conquered Cuba. How did this act affect later conquests?
Cuba became a wasteland of disease
Cubans revolted and armed themselves against Europeans
Cuba became a vital way point for explorers
Once Cuba was conquered, Velázquez began reorganizing the island to better suit European needs. He moved Havana, for instance, and Cuba became an important staging area for future explorers.
Pedro de Alvarado served as an important assistant to what conqueror?
Alvarado was a trusted assistant to Cortez, who placed Alvarado in important leadership positions during conquests. But Alvarado's cruelty soon made him a notorious conqueror in his own right.
Natives called Pedro de Alvarado "Tonatiuh," which means what?
Pedro de Alvarado was a ferocious and violent man with very blond hair. The natives called him "Tonatiuh," or "Sun God."
Pedro de Alvarado conquered which part of the Americas?
Pedro de Alvarado put his vicious streak to use in Guatemala, where he conquered the locals and then became governor of the area. But he kept right on conquering right up to his death in 1541.
True or false: When Cortez encountered the Aztec Empire, was the region relatively free of political tension?
A lot of natives resented the rule of the Aztec Empire. It was a perfect situation for the politically savvy Cortez to use to his advantage.
Spanish conquerors often wrote about their victories. How did they portray the native warriors they fought?
The Spanish often treated natives as subhuman. In their eyes, the locals were savages who needed to either accept European superiority … or be exterminated.
They were true gentlemen.
In 1517, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba left Cuba for which area?
Cordoba and a group of settlers who were unhappy with Cuba set out for Mexico. But many of his men wound up being killed by a Mayan army.
Which people did the Spanish conquer on the Yucatan Peninsula?
The Spanish explorers pushed through the Yucatan Peninsula and encountered many Mayans. In less than 20 years, the Mayans were a conquered people.
Hernando de Soto helped to conquer the Incas. He also explored which area?
southeastern United States
de Soto wasn't satisfied after conquering the Incas. He then headed north and explored much of what is now the southeastern United States.
Which act by Pizarro still affects modern Peru today?
He created Peruvian currency.
He established the capital city.
Pizarro created the capital of Lima on Peru's western coast. Today, Lima is still a very important metropolitan area.
Cortez captured the Aztec city of Tenochtitlán and renamed it what?
Cortez conquered Tenochtitlán and took it for the crown of Spain. Then, he renamed it Mexico City.
Diego de Almagro was a rival of Pizarro and also discovered which area?
Almagro competed with Pizarro for the wealth of South America. He later created an expedition and headed south, where he was the first European to explore Chile.
Which explorer was one of the first to see much of the southwestern United States?
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado spent years exploring lands north of Mexico City. He and his men plunged into unexplored areas all over the southwestern United States … but left him pretty much penniless.
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