The human body is fascinating. It's made up of approximately 200 different types of cells. And when you consider the different functions of each cell, from Microglial cells (in the central nervous system) to Erythrocyte cells (red blood cells), our breathing, walking and ability to heal, is a biological and chemical marvel. To make it even more amazing, there are about 20 different types of structures or organelles within the different types of cells. In most cases, all these functions work perfectly and automatically. They are only brought into our consciousness when they don't work, (stomach ache, shortness of breath, wound that doesn't heal, etc. )
But biology doesn't start and stop with the human body. It includes all fauna and flora from microscopic to macroscopic. Yet within this vast range, you'll find the same Eukaryotic cells, Prokaryotic cells, and bacteria. Although there is so much to know, you'll quickly recall the process of photosynthesis, the power of dominant and recessive genes, and the scientist who helped in each step of discovery and understanding. Ready to try your hand at a quiz that needs an almost genius level IQ? (Genius level =140+.) Go on, ace all the biology questions in this quiz and show off the gifted student you truly are.
Certain elements are key to maintaining human life. Those listed above are components of both air and water, and in human bodies.
Different types of cells reach different sizes. Cell size depends on what the cell needs to be to survive, and how its needs are met by the structures within and surrounding it.
All living organisms are made of at least one cell, from the very simple to the complex. This includes all animals, plants and people.
Robert Hooke first discovered cells in 1665. An English polymath, he gave cells their name because their structure reminded him of the nearly empty rooms where monks live.
Cells were discovered in plants by Matthias Schleiden and animals by Theodore Schwann in the 1800s. Together they wrote Cell Theory, which states that all organisms have at least one cell as their basic organizational structure and that all cells come from other cells.
Cells have numerous mechanisms to correct mistakes. If mistakes cannot be fixed, imperfect cells will often undergo apoptosis, or programmed cell death, so they do not create more faulty DNA.
Plants perform photosynthesis because it creates the food and energy that they need for growth and cellular respiration. Most of this process occurs in the leaves of the plants.
The saying "you are what you eat" is actually true! Humans take in the large biological molecules from food, like proteins and carbohydrates, and use them to power their cells.
Cell membranes are organelles which perform important functions. They keep cells together and also selectively let materials in and out to keep the cell functioning properly.
19th-century monk Johan Gregor Mendel is often called the father of genetics. In a Czech monastery, he conducted a decade-long experiment in heredity using pea plants.
There are numerous environmental factors that can affect DNA. However, spontaneous chemical reactions which damage DNA can occur even without environmental factors.
Biology is the study of life, which makes defining and understanding living things a key part of it. All living things share some version of these characteristics: eating, movement, reproduction, breathing, growing, excretion, secretion and circulation.
A Punnett Square is a tool which can be used to predict genotypes and phenotypes. Genotypes are combinations of alleles, and phenotypes are the observable traits that these alleles create.
All living things are made of atoms, which form bonds with each other. These particles all adhere to the basic rules of chemistry.
Water is a key component of life as we know it and it makes up 55%-60% of adult human bodies. Water is an excellent solvent, moves easily through living membranes and has thermal properties which make it excellently suited to help create and sustain life.
DNA errors and damage are actually very common and usually corrected within the body. In most cases, they do not cause cancer or even small mutations.
Prokaryotic cells are often single-celled non-complex organisms without a defined structure. Eukaryotic cells have defined structures and make up multicelled organisms, like plants and humans.
DNA is a polymer that appears deceptively simple. All living things on earth share the same DNA.
Cells constantly "talk" to each other by sending chemical signals. This process is called cell signaling and allows cells to better coordinate their activities.
Mitochondria play many roles within the cell. One of the most important is being a key part of the metabolic pathway, which is key to carbohydrate and energy metabolism.
Cells do their best to prevent mutations or permanent changes in the DNA sequence. They make corrections through proofreading, mismatch repair, chemical reversal, excision repair and double-stranded break repair.
Prokaryotic cells do not have a defined structure and are often found in single-celled organisms. Eukaryotic cells are rigidly structured and found in complex multi-celled organisms.
Mitosis is a type of cell division that is often referred to as binary fission. It is when a cell divides to create two genetically identical daughter cells.
Chloroplasts are green because they contain chlorophyll. They help living organisms transform light energy into fuel so they can function and thrive.
Plant cells and animal cells share some similarities, but also have some differences. Plant cells have cell walls, which help transport water and solutes through plant tissue.
Light-dependent reactions are the first stage of photosynthesis. During this phase, light energy is converted into ATP, chemical energy and NADPH by plants.
Carbon is a key building block in biological molecules. In fact, the human body is roughly 18% carbon.
Genes come in different versions or alleles. Alleles can be dominant or recessive, with dominant genes visibly showing over recessive ones.
While Punnett Squares can be helpful for representing the probability of genetic expression visually, they are not ideal for all of them. For example, for complex combinations of traits, you may need to draw a Punnett Square with thousands of boxes.
The DNA double helix is one of the most iconic shapes in the world. It is the shape in which DNA forms chains and has inspired architects and artists around the world.
Cell structure can vary depending on the type and function of the cell. However, all plant and animal cells contain organelles. Organelles are specialized structures within cells that perform specific tasks.
Humans are made up of countless cells. These are both complex Eukaryotic cells, and prokaryotic more simple cells like the bacteria in our skin and gut.
Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway of cells. It is a part of how cells get the energy they need and transport waste.
Mendel's work disagreed with popular opinion at the time, which was that the traits of parents blended perfectly in their offspring. It was most likely considered too mathematical and confusing by many of his peers. Due to this, he went largely unrecognized during his life.
There are two steps of photosynthesis. The stages are light-dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle.