Leptons, and atoms and bosons, oh my! New discoveries in physics happen so fast that even skilled scientists find it hard to keep up. See how much you know about famous physicists and theories old and new in this challenging yet fascinating field.
The speed of light has been well-established at 186,000 miles per second.
Incredibly, Danish astronomer Ole Roemer first calculated the speed of light in 1676. Before that people thought light speed was either infinite or too fast to measure.
The concept that pressure times volume will stay constant at a constant temperature came long after Newton's contributions to the field of physics.
Quarks, which come in six types, or flavors, are the tiny building blocks that make up protons and neutrons.
Fresnel presented his wave theory of light at a science competition in 1819. Not only did he win the competition, but he also helped pave the way for future breakthroughs in the study of optics.
Wilhelm Rontgen won the Nobel Prize for his discovery of X-ray technology.
Protons and neutrons make up an atom's nucleus, while electrons float around the dense nucleus.
The four fundamental forces in physics are gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak forces.
Marconi made wireless communication possible with his work in radio. Soon after he introduced his wireless system in 1909, the crew of the Titanic used this technology to call for help after striking an iceberg.
Absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature, is minus 273.15 Celsius, or minus 459.67 Fahrenheit.
According to Boyle's Law, pressure and volume are inversely proportional at a given mass and constant temperature.
Located in Switzerland, the Large Hadron Collider is not only the world's largest particle accelerator but also one of the largest machines on the planet. By smashing particles together at the speed of light, scientists can analyze the subatomic world in a controlled environment.
Density can be calculated by dividing mass by volume, one of the most basic calculations used in physics.
Einstein theorized that massive objects cause distortions in space-time, causing it to curve.
In e=mc<sup>2</sup>, "c" represents the speed of light. This means that kinetic energy will always equal mass times the speed of light squared.
Einstein was remarkably gifted in math, science and music as a student but had a little trouble with his French studies.
J. Robert Oppenheimer is known as the "father of the atomic bomb" for his work on the Manhattan Project.
During fission, an atom divides in two. The opposite is fusion, where two atoms combine to form a single unit.
An ion has an unequal number of electrons and protons, which means it will always have either a positive or negative charge.
Kelvins are a measure of temperature and are named for William Thomson, who was also known as Lord Kelvin.
In a black hole, gravity is so strong that nothing can escape, not even light.
A baryon always consists of three quarks, which means it has a charge of minus one, zero or one.
A meson consists of one quark and one antiquark, giving it a charge of minus two, minus one, zero, one or two.
Planck's constant, which plays an important role in quantum mechanics, states that energy multiplied by time equals action.
The universe began to expand when the big bang took place around 15 billion years ago.
The matter we see around us makes up around 5 percent of the universe. The rest consists of dark matter and a mysterious concept known as dark energy.
While the differences in how quarks combine are attributed to a feature known as color, this "color" is merely a theoretical description.
No-charge, massless particles known as neutrinos are the result of violent astrophysical events. Hold you hand towards the sun for just a moment, and billions of neutrinos will pass through at a subatomic level.
Stephen Hawking primarily studies cosmology. His best-selling book, "A Brief History of Time," made him a star in the science world when it came out in 1988.
In string theory, there are at least 10 different dimensions.