Women played a major role in the outcome of the Civil War. How much do you know about their contributions?
Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States on November 06, 1860. When he was elected, Mary Todd Lincoln became the 16th First Lady of the United States.
Stowe's novel depicted the horrors of slavery and reached a wide audience. According to speculation, Abraham Lincoln said the novel started the Civil War.
Women often served as nurses and spies during the war, but a few women dressed themselves as men so that they could fight.
Southern women lived a life of ease before the war broke out, but when their husbands left to fight, many of these women were forced perform duties they were not used to.
Rose O'Neal Greenhow was a spy for the Confederacy. Through her efforts, she helped the Confederacy win the First Battle of Bull Run.
Lucretia Mott was an abolitionist who saw slavery as evil. When the war ended, she continued to fight for women's suffrage and was elected as the first president of the American Equal Rights Association.
Louisa May Alcott was a volunteer nurse during the Civil War. After the war was over, she wrote her famous book called Little Women.
The Civil War was fought for many reasons. The most prominent reason was slavery, which forced everyone in the country to take a side.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an advocate for equality. She fought for both the rights of women and blacks, including the right to vote.
Southern women knew the importance of duty in the South, and they encouraged their husbands to fight for the Southern way of life, which they believed was being threatened.
Varina Davis was the second wife of Jefferson Davis. When the South seceded and Jefferson Davis became the Confederate president, Varina became the First Lady of the Confederacy.
Marie Tepe enlisted in the Union army beside her husband, Bernardo Tepe. Since she was from France, she was known as French Mary.
The Siege of Vicksburg was difficult for every Southern person in the city, including women. Women struggled to survive as they ran out of food and supplies. Not to mention, they were often in close proximity to enemy fire.
The battle of Gettysburg left thousands wounded after it was over. With a sense of responsibility, Lydia Hamilton Smith traveled the battlefield, providing clothing and supplies to soldiers, even soldiers from the Confederacy.
Harriet Tubman returned several times to the South to rescue slaves. During the Civil War, she served as a spy and a scout for the Union army because of her knowledge of the land.
While wealthy Southern families had slaves to help care for their land while the men were off fighting in the war, the wives of poor farmers were forced to care for the land themselves. With no help, these women often faced starvation.
Once Robert E. Lee knew war was inevitable, he told his wife, Mary Anna Custis Lee, to leave their home in Virginia and travel elsewhere but to keep quiet about where she went. After the war ended, she returned only once to visit their old home.
After a slave agreed to run away with Harriet Tubman, she refused to allow them to return to their plantation because it threatened the entire group. She would even hold a pistol to their head if she had to.
Although Frederick Douglass fought for the freedom and rights of African Americans, he was also an advocate of women's rights. He believed both causes went hand in hand in many ways.
Due to their agricultural economy, the South was far more spread out and less industrialized than the North. Often, Southern women were required to make supplies for Southern soldiers in their own homes. Some women even nursed soldiers back to health in their homes.
Women in Georgia suffered greatly on Sherman's March to the Sea, as he burned many of their homes and stole their food. However, this usually did not deter them from supporting the Southern cause.
Women often disguised themselves as men to fight in the war. Although the numbers are few, some of these women were captured and sent to Andersonville Prison. On record, at least one baby was born at Andersonville to a prisoner.
Antonia Ford was arrested for spying for the Confederacy. She pledged her allegiance back to the Union and married her captor, Joseph Willard.
Clara Barton served as a nurse during the Civil War. After the war ended, she traveled the country and spoke on the horrors that she witnessed. She went on to found the American Red Cross.
As a slave for the family of Jefferson Davis, Mary Bowser worked in the Confederate White House. During the Civil War, she relayed information to the Union.
Robert E. Lee ordered Pickett to lead his soldiers on a charge to capture Cemetery Ridge, even though success was virtually impossible. At least one woman participated in Pickett's charge, and she was killed with the other men.
As the superintendent, Dorothea Lynde Dix was responsible for nurses during the Civil War. She initiated standards and guidlines that nurses were required to follow, which provided nurses with a universal approach when it came to their job.
The 1868 election pitted Ulysses S. Grant against Horatio Seymour. Grant was widely popular and won by a large margin in the electoral college.
When Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, Andrew Johnson became the 17th president of the United States. His wife, Eliza, suffered from tuberculosis and was often bedridden during his presidency.
Nurses did their best to prevent death on the battlefield during the Civil War, but they could not stop the spread of diseases that ravished camps on both sides.
Pauline Cushman was an actress who toasted Jefferson Davis as a prank, but she gained Confederate support for the act. Seen as a Confederate sympathizer, the Union used her as a spy.
Mary Surratt conspired with John Wilkes Booth to assassinate Abraham Lincoln. On July 7, 1865, she became the first woman to be executed by the United States government after being found guilty of helping assist in the assassination.
Mary Edwards Walker served as a nurse during the Civil War. She often ventured into enemy territory to help wounded soldiers and was captured during one of these trips. For her bravery, she was awarded the Medal of Honor.
Jennie Hodgers joined the Union army under the name Albert Cashier. When the war ended, she continued to live by the name until her identity was discovered in 1913 while she was at a hospital for the insane.
Belle Boyd was a Confederate spy during the war. Although she was arrested several times, she was always set free and continued her activities.